Titanium

 

Titanium is a high performance Material that can provide and support many different technical solutions.

A lot of designers and engineers understand Titan as an exotic, rare and expensive material. But Titanium is the rank 4 of the most available Metals on our planet.

 

The price of Titanium is less driven by the raw material of the Titanium Sponge, as of the delivery form and the number of process and machining steps that is needed.

 

The low density of Ti in combination with its high strength made Ti to a very successful Material in the Aerospace industry. Ti is used in engines, housings, landing gears, superchargers, body construction as well as many other Applications. Roughly 10% of the weight of a modern Airplane belongs to Ti parts.

 

As Titanium provides antibacterial and antiallergenic properties it is also used in Medical applications like instruments, surface protection or body implants.

 

Titanium is high resistant against corrosion, most chemicals as well as salt water even at high concentration and temperature. This explains why titanium finds often usage in Chemical plants, Reactors, Heat exchangers etc.

 

3D printing Applications with spherical  Ti Powder open a new universe for designers and become more and more successful. Spherical Ti powder is produced in special machines under Vacuum conditions, what increases the price significantly compared to grinded or milled powder. This vacuum production process of Spherical powder produces always a wide range of grain sizes. The powder needs to be filtered to select the required  grain size. Therefore the grain size and range got a significant price impact.

 

Typically titanium is specified by the US standard of ASTM and defined in different Grades. Nevertheless most countries and regions have own standards like DIN EN  etc.

 

These specifications can defer, but are usually translatable into ASTM standards. Hallmark follows the ASTM standards for all available products. Special alloys can be produced and offered, but those will have a minimum order quantity that is linked to the minimum production charge.

 

Grade 1

is the most ductile and softest titanium alloy. It is a good solution for cold forming and corrosive environments.ASTM/ ASME SB-265 provides the standards for commercially pure titanium sheet and plate.

 

Grade 2

Unalloyed titanium, standard oxygen.

 

Grade 2H

Unalloyed titanium (Grade 2 with 58 ksi minimum UTS).

 

Grade 3

Unalloyed titanium, medium oxygen.

 

Grades 1-4 are unalloyed and considered commercially pure or "CP". Generally the tensile and yield strength goes up with grade number for these "pure" grades. The difference in their physical properties is primarily due to the quantity of interstitial elements. They are used for corrosion resistance applications where cost, ease of fabrication, and welding are important.

 

Grade 5 also known as Ti6Al4V, Ti-6Al-4V or Ti 6-4

is the most commonly used alloy. It has a chemical composition of 6% aluminum, 4% vanadium, 0.25% (maximum) iron, 0.2% (maximum) oxygen, and the remainder titanium. It is significantly stronger than commercially pure titanium while having the same stiffness and thermal properties (excluding thermal conductivity, which is about 60% lower in Grade 5 Ti than in CP Ti). Among its many advantages, it is heat treatable. This grade is an excellent combination of strength, corrosion resistance, weld and fabricability.

This alpha-beta alloy is the workhorse alloy of the titanium industry. The alloy is fully heat treatable in section sizes up to 15 mm and is used up to approximately 400 °C (750 °F). Since it is the most commonly used alloy – over 70% of all alloy grades melted are a sub-grade of Ti6Al4V, its uses span many aerospace airframe and engine component uses and also major non-aerospace applications in the marine, offshore and power generation industries in particular.

Applications: Blades, discs, rings, airframes, fasteners, components. Vessels, cases, hubs, forgings. Biomedical implants.

Generally, Ti-6Al-4V is used in applications up to 400 degrees Celsius. It has a density of roughly 4420 kg/m3, Young's modulus of 120 GPa, and tensile strength of 1000 MPa. By comparison, annealed type 316 stainless steel has a density of 8000 kg/m3, modulus of 193 GPa, and tensile strength of 570 MPa. Tempered 6061 aluminum alloy has a density of 2700 kg/m3, modulus of 69 GPa, and tensile strength of 310 MPa, respectively.

Ti-6Al-4V standard specifications include:

  • UNS: R56400,

  • AMS: 4911, 4920, 4928, 4934-4935, 4965, 4967, 6930-6931, T9046

  • ASTM: B265, B348, B381 F136

  • MIL: T9046-T9047

  • MMS: 1217, 1233

  • DMS: 1570, 1583, 1592, 2285, 2442 R-1

BMS: 7-348

 

Grade 6

contains 5% aluminium and 2.5% tin. It is also known as Ti-5Al-2.5Sn. This alloy is used in airframes and jet engines due to its good weldability, stability and strength at elevated temperatures.

 

Grade 7

contains 0.12 to 0.25% palladium. This grade is similar to Grade 2. The small quantity of palladium added gives it enhanced crevice corrosion resistance at low temperatures and high pH.

 

Grade 7H

is identical to Grade 7 with enhanced corrosion resistance.

 

Grade 9

contains 3.0% aluminium and 2.5% vanadium. This grade is a compromise between the ease of welding and manufacturing of the "pure" grades and the high strength of Grade 5. It is commonly used in aircraft tubing for hydraulics and in athletic equipment.

 

Grade 11

contains 0.12 to 0.25% palladium. This grade has enhanced corrosion resistance.

 

Grade 12

contains 0.3% molybdenum and 0.8% nickel.[

 

Grades 13, 14, and 15

all contain 0.5% nickel and 0.05% ruthenium.

 

Grade 16

contains 0.04 to 0.08% palladium. This grade has enhanced corrosion resistance.

 

Grade 16H

contains 0.04 to 0.08% palladium.

 

Grade 17

contains 0.04 to 0.08% palladium. This grade has enhanced corrosion resistance.

 

Grade 18

contains 3% aluminium, 2.5% vanadium and 0.04 to 0.08% palladium. This grade is identical to Grade 9 in terms of mechanical characteristics. The added palladium gives it increased corrosion resistance.

 

Grade 19

contains 3% aluminium, 8% vanadium, 6% chromium, 4% zirconium, and 4% molybdenum.

 

Grade 20

contains 3% aluminium, 8% vanadium, 6% chromium, 4% zirconium, 4% molybdenum and 0.04% to 0.08% palladium.

 

Grade 21

contains 15% molybdenum, 3% aluminium, 2.7% niobium, and 0.25% silicon.

 

Grade 23

contains 6% aluminium, 4% vanadium, 0.13% (maximum) Oxygen. Improved ductility and fracture toughness with some reduction in strength.

 

Grade 24

contains 6% aluminium, 4% vanadium and 0.04% to 0.08% palladium.

 

Grade 25

contains 6% aluminium, 4% vanadium and 0.3% to 0.8% nickel and 0.04% to 0.08% palladium.

 

Grades 26, 26H, and 27

all contain 0.08 to 0.14% ruthenium.

 

Grade 28

contains 3% aluminium, 2.5% vanadium and 0.08 to 0.14% ruthenium.

Grade 29

contains 6% aluminium, 4% vanadium and 0.08 to 0.14% ruthenium.

 

Grades 30 and 31

contain 0.3% cobalt and 0.05% palladium.

Grade 32

contains 5% aluminium, 1% tin, 1% zirconium, 1% vanadium, and 0.8% molybdenum.

 

Grades 33 and 34

contain 0.4% nickel, 0.015% palladium, 0.025% ruthenium, and 0.15% chromium .

 

Grade 35

contains 4.5% aluminium, 2% molybdenum, 1.6% vanadium, 0.5% iron, and 0.3% silicon.

 

Grade 36

contains 45% niobium.

 

Grade 37

contains 1.5% aluminium.

 

Grade 38

contains 4% aluminium, 2.5% vanadium, and 1.5% iron. This grade was developed in the 1990s for use as an armor plating. The iron reduces the amount of Vanadium needed as a beta stabilizer. Its mechanical properties are very similar to Grade 5, but has good cold workability similar to grade 9.

 

 

Titanium Welding

Welding conditions are “excellent” with the following Ti Grades: 1, 2 ,3 ,4 ,7 , 9 , 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 26, 27, 18

For the Grades 5, 23, 24, 29 the welding conditions are “satisfactory”

Possible welding processes are Arc, TIG, MIG, PAW as well as Resistance, friction, explosion and forging welding and others.

 

 

 

 

 

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